Saturday, February 8, 2020
Management - Research Paper Example This paper will discuss the evolution of management principle from the Classical School to the present and further compare, contrast, and relate different schools of management theory and management practices. Evolution of management principle from the Classical School to the present There are several theories originating from different principles throughout history which have seen management from their own point of view. These theories appeared due to the revolutionary development that has happened throughout history and not because they were planned. Management theories are broadly classified into three which are the classical management theory, the neoclassical management theory and the modern management theory. The classical management theory, which is also referred to as the traditional school of management, consists of a group that has similar ideas on organizational management which evolved from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. This theory evolved due to the In dustrial Revolution and consists of three branches, which are the administrative principles, bureaucratic organization, and scientific management. The common aspects of these theories under the classical management theory is that they all put an emphasis on the economic rational of management and organization, which assumes that individuals at work are motivated by economic factors and would normally choose that which will give them the greatest monetary benefits. The scientific management was championed in 1911 by Frederick Tailor, who is considered to be the father of scientific management; he emphasized on time and motion studies, production maximization, and task specialization. Taylor argued that other schools of thought leave workers too much discretion, and their potential at the workplace is not being maximized. Taylor argues that despite the fact that there is specialization and division of labor, employees still retain discretion on how to perform tasks. Scientific managem ent theory was designed so as to put management in control, designing and using studies that are scientifically measured while focusing on the most efficient work methods and then organizing and controlling workers to ensure maximum efficiency (Giannantonio & Hurley, 2011).This method had four elements where each job had to be broken down into elements and where each element is assigned a scientific way of handling it. Workers then would be selected and trained on how to do a task in a specific way, and there should also be good coordination between the managers and workers, and finally, there should be division of labor. He believed that this would determine the most efficient way of doing work. This method was challenged as there is no best way of doing work, and by the fact that there are also other factors other than money that affect productivity, like social needs, esteem and security needs. As the scientific management pioneers tried to find the best way of doing things, the administrative principle pioneers tried to explore possibilities of the best ways of pulling jobs together and operating the organization; they tried to find the best way of running an organization. This theory was championed by Henry Fayol, who introduced the principles of management which are fundamental functions of all managers; they include planning,
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Maternal Stress and the Effects of Childhood Development Essay In conducting my research on developmental studies, I had the chance to review many academic journals with many different studies. I chose to read, Ã¢â¬Å"The Role of Prenatal Maternal Stress in Child Development,Ã¢â¬ by Janet A.DiPietro in the, Current Directions in Psychological Science journal. The title of the study itself does identify the independent and dependent variable. The independent variable is the effect of stress, and the dependent variable is the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. In reading the introduction, I learned that throughout history people have thought that the emotions and experiences of a pregnant woman impinge on her developing fetus. (DiPietro, 2004) I also learned that there are no direct neural connections between the mother and fetus. (DiPietro, 2004) The journal went on to describe the physiological processes involved in mother to fetus bio-chemical and hormonal functions. The main studies used in determining theoretical explanations throughout history, have been in animal studies. According to DiPietro (2004), Ã¢â¬Å"the most compelling evidence between maternal physiological functioning and later development in offspring is found in animal studies.Ã¢â¬ (p. 1). The hypothesis of this study suggests that maternal stressors are more far-reaching on child behavior than previously suspected. (DiPietro, 2004). The main way that this hypothesis has been studied is by utilizing animal research. In a series of studies done with rhesus monkeys, when the mothers were exposed to loud noises throughout pregnancy, the offspring showed delayed motor development and reduced attention. (DiPietro, 2004) It does seem that most of the studies conducted on animals have reported negative consequences. Although reports of either no effects or beneficial ones make it clear that much is left to be learned about the specific characteristics of stressors that either accelerate or retard development. (DiPietro, 2004) The subjects used in the methods section were humans. Although, according to the article, this is difficult to study in the human because of the physiological differences during the pregnancies of the different species, and the fact that researchers are unable to control events that transpire after birth in humans. (DiPietro, 2004) Therefore, there are no graphs, charts or statistical measures seen in this article. There were several methods used to analyze the data in this article. One was the survey. Surveys were done with mothers who had witnessed a catastrophic even such as the World Trade Center disaster, or an earthquake. Although the study was able to show that the mother was indeed stressed during pregnancy, there was no study conducted on the outcome of the child. (DiPietro, 2004) Another method had mothers report about their stress incurred during pregnancy, and then an observer and not a parent rated the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. The article suggests that even the resulting information in this study may be skewed, because the studies relied on the MotherÃ¢â¬â¢s reports of their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. It finally became apparent through this study that the only way for the researchers to examine the effects of stressors on the fetus was to subject women to a non-invasive stressor and then measure fetal response. (DiPietro, 2004) They gave these women a standardized test called the, Stroop Color-Word Test. (DiPietro, 2004) The test caused the women to feel cognitively challenged, therefore inducing increased physiological responses in mother, but interestingly, not in the fetus. Fetal motor activity was actually suppressed, according to the study. (DiPietro, 2004) The final results of the study showed that higher maternal anxiety midway through pregnancy were strongly associated with better motor and mental development scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. (DiPietro, 2004) Interestingly, the research conducted on humans, showed that the effects on the developing child are opposite of the effects on animals. The article ends with this statement, Ã¢â¬Å" Too much or too little stress may impede development, but a moderate level may be formative or optimal. It seems that there is really too little research on this area of study to come to a conclusion. I found this study to be very interesting and relevant to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s issues within society, and especially the question of nature versus nurture. It makes me think about children who are displaying such violent behaviors such as shooting their classmates and parents. It makes me ask the question of what was going on in the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s environment during pregnancy? Did she have an easy, stress free, supported pregnancy, or was there fighting and unrest during the pregnancy? Could factors such as these affect the child and develop into what we label as sociopathic? It would be interesting to conduct a study of pregnant women in a prison setting versus pregnant women in an ideal pregnancy situation, and to study the offspring from birth to five years old. Would the affects of the pregnant woman in prison create certain developmental issues in the children? Does it even matter? These questions and many more within the psychology realm are what make this a fascinating discipline to study. It truly is the nature of ourselves that we get to ask questions about, and find the deeper, hidden meanings. References DiPietro, J. A. (2004, April). The role of prenatal maternal stress in child development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(2), 71-74. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20182913
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Korea was engaged in a civil war as an attempt to keep North Korea from thrusting its influence on South Korea. Communist Russia and China were strong supporters of the North, and to keep Communism contained the United States sent troops to the South. USA troops spent years fighting and dying for a country some had never heard of. The irony of this war is that no one really paid attention and its memory withered as well as the memory of the men who fought there. You may ask how this couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve happened or how it all came about, and ,yes, there is an answer it just may be a little difficult to explain. Hence this war was known as the Ã¢â¬Å"forgotten warÃ¢â¬ . A cry rang out, June 24, 1950, from a small country half way around the world and America listened. KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s geographical realties affected the conduct of war at the strategic, the operational, and the tactical level. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic location made it a collision point for competing interests of major power throughout the world. As far as the actual land mass, Korea is a country no larger than the state of Kansas. All together, North and South Korea covers an area of 85,246 square miles, and only fifteen percent of that can be considered plains Ã¢â¬â these are mostly in the southern coastal regions. The United States could not allow its interests in East Asia, particularly Japan, to be placed in jeopardy. It was not the nation of Korea but its geographical location that prompted America to intervene in the war. (Sommers, 3-10) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The United Nations was greatly concerned with the war in Korea, but it did not have an army to send. Thus, the United States Army made up four fifths of the actual forces sent to Korea. The bulk of the forces sent were placed under the command of General MacArthur from the United States. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the first attempts to drive the North Koreans back was a wise plan devised by MacArthur. He landed his forces from the sea at Inchon and worked his way up the coast. His gamble paid off when his army retook the South Korean capital of Seoul. After this victory the United States questioned whether they should stop at the 38th parallel or go beyond it and try to recapture North Korea. They decided to go on. After the 38th was crossed putting the US and South Korean forces in the North , China
Monday, January 13, 2020
At a young age, I had always had an aggressive appetite, never caring about what I put into my body because I was young, and it was of no concern to me. Over the last 5 years, I have been more aware of my eating habits, but still not making a conscious effort to change what my body intakes. Throughout, My Diet Analysis research, I was able to identify eating habits that I was unaware of specifically during the weekdays. I decided to record two of my busiest days during the week, Monday and Tuesday and one lacks day, being Sunday. My findings were somewhat surprising, showing me on paper just exactly how unhealthy my eating habits are. My diet analysis gave me just the motivation I needed to fully make a change within my everyday diet. Overall, it is very clear that I need to make some changes within my diet on a daily basis in order become fit and healthy. My results from my 3 day recall shocked me slightly, because I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize how little I ate, but how unhealthy many of my food choices were. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t in range with my calorie intake for the 3 days. My calorie intake was over 1500, and my recommended calorie intake was a little over 1200. The foods I ate that consisted of the most calories were foods from fast food restaurants, mainly being McDonalds, and foods that were full of carbs. I generally eat a lot of fast food during the week because my schedule is so hectic and nonstop, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have time to indulge in anything else. My calorie intake was higher on Sunday and Tuesday than it was on Monday. My overall calorie intake on Monday was 100.1, Tuesday it was 2312.7 and on Sunday 1258.7. I was a little surprised to see that my calorie intake on Monday was lower than on Sunday, but after reviewing the foods I consumed, it made sense. Out of the 3 days, Monday was the day I consumed the most vegetables, green tea, and water. I typically drink a lot of water and green tea every day, so that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a surprise, but according to my di et analysis my vegetable intake for Monday was excellent. My vegetable intake is usually higher on Sundays because my mother usually cooks, and makes at least two green vegetables for that particular meal. As I continued to review my diet analysis I noticed I barely ate any fruits, which was very clear to see considering over the 3 days I had only eaten chunked pineapples, and the fruit that was in a smoothie. According to the USDA dietary guidelines my fruit intake should be at least 33% a day. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s obvious that I need to substitute snacks, such as cookies, and chips for an apple or a fruit cup every day to meet my fruitÃ requirement. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t too surprised to find that my fruit intake was low because I donÃ¢â¬â¢t tend to eat fruit on a daily basis. I would defiantly say I indulge more vegetables than I do fruits, and that probably wonÃ¢â¬â¢t change too much when it comes to my diet. Even though IÃ¢â¬â¢m aware that I have a slight addiction to salt and salty foods I was still disgusted at my sodium intake. My average sodium intake came out to be 12263.4 over the 3days. I am now more than ever motivated to stop adding salt to everything I eat because not only is it a bad habit, but it can do much damage to my body in the long run . Along with having a high sodium intake, my Trans and saturated fat intake was high. Trans fat is something I never want in my system, but consuming fast food doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily help me met this goal. My average intake of saturated fat over the 3 days was 13.7 and my overall trans-fat intake was 1.5. Although my trans-fat intake wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t exceeding, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not something I want to ingest/digest even in small amounts. I typically drink a lot of water, but according to my diet analysis, I need to be drinking twice as much as I consume. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t drink sodas or juice at all, so my beverage intake only consists of wate r and green tea; so seeing that I still need to consume more water was shocking. My average intake over the 3 days was 1,607.19 and I need my recommended number is 2,700.00. This will probably be one of the easier changes to make because I donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind drinking water, and prefer to drink water over any other beverage. I believe if I become more active this will help me consume more water throughout the day. Drinking the recommended amount of water every day is important to me because water helps your body work to its greatest potential, and helps with skin, hair and nails. I usually find myself exhausted and extremely tired throughout the day, and never really knowing why or exactly how to change that aspect of my life. When reviewing my Vitamin intake, it all began to make sense. My Vitamin levels are very low, especially my Vitamin D level, which goes hand in hand with my energy; explaining why IÃ¢â¬â¢m always tired. My Vitamin D intake was 1.13 which is extremely low compared to my recommended amount, which was 15.00. In order to help increase my vitamin D level, I have to first research which foods have a high level of vitamin D. I do recall when I was 18 my doctor explaining to me that my Vitamin D level was low, but seeing it makes it much more real. The weather has an effect on my Vitamin D level being low as well. The sun is a great source of Vitamin D, but because itÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ winter my exposure to sun is limited. Milk also has a great amount of Vitamin D, but unfortunately I am lactose and tolerant, which probably has a great effect on my Vitamin D level. It would be in my best interest to consume Vitamin D supplements to help increase my Vitamin D levels efficiently. I currently do no t exercise as often as I should considering the foods that I eat on a daily basis. I do however; have a job that consists of being active with children three time out of the week, which is a nice benefit. Once the spring is here it would be in my best interest to go running every day for at least 30 minutes. This will help with my physical activity and sun exposure, helping with my Vitamin D levels. I would like to continue to monitor my eating habits using my diet analysis because I do believe it is hard to determine my eating habits with only analyzing 3 days. But it is still very evident that I need to make some changes. The Diet Analysis project has taught me a lot about my own eating habits and has inspired me to modify them for a healthier lifestyle. Probably the biggest change I will make after having done this project is to increase my intake of vegetables, fruits and Vitamin D. Fruits and vegetables will provide more fiber in my diet (something I am lacking) as well as cert ain other vitamins and minerals that I am deficient in. I will also try to limit my fat intake, especially saturated fats, trans-fats, and fats from animal sources. I may even start packing my own lunches since most of the flaws in my diet are from of convenient and fast foods.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
The Battle of Carillon was fought July 8, 1758, during the French Indian War (1754-1763). Forces Commanders British Major General James AbercrombieBrigadier General Lord George Howe15,000-16,000 men French Major General Louis-Joseph de MontcalmChevalier de Levis3,600 men Background Having suffered numerous defeats in North America in 1757, including the capture and destruction of Fort William Henry, the British sought to renew their efforts the following year. Under the guidance of William Pitt, a new strategy was developed which called for attacks against Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Fort Duquesne at the forks of the Ohio, and Fort Carillon on Lake Champlain. To lead this last campaign, Pitt desired to appoint Lord George Howe. This move was blocked due to political considerations and Major General James Abercrombie was given command with Howe as brigadier general (Map). Assembling a force of around 15,000 regulars and provincials, Abercrombie established a base at the southern end of Lake George near the former site of Fort William Henry. Opposing the British efforts was Fort Carillons garrison of 3,500 men led by Colonel FranÃ §ois-Charles de Bourlamaque. On June 30, he was joined by the overall French commander in North America, Marquis Louis-Joseph de Montcalm. Arriving at Carillon, Montcalm found the garrison insufficient to protect the area around the fort and possessing food for only nine days. To aid the situation, Montcalm requested reinforcements from Montreal. Fort Carillon Construction on Fort Carillon had begun in 1755 in response to the French defeat at the Battle of Lake George. Built on Lake Champlain, near the northern point of Lake George, Fort Carillon was situated on a low point with the La Chute River to the south. This location was dominated by Rattlesnake Hill (Mount Defiance) across the river and by Mount Independence across the lake. Any guns emplaced on the former would be in position to bombard the fort with impunity. As the La Chute was not navigable, a portage road ran south from a sawmill at Carillon to the head of Lake George. The British Advance On July 5, 1758, the British embarked and began moving over Lake George. Led by the industrious Howe, the British advance guard consisted of elements of Major Robert Rogers rangers and light infantry led by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gage. As the British approached on the morning of July 6, they were shadowed by 350 men under Captain TrÃ ©pezet. Receiving reports from TrÃ ©pezet regarding the size of the British force, Montcalm withdrew the bulk of his forces to Fort Carillon and began building a line of defenses on a rise o to the northwest. Beginning with entrenchments fronted by thick abatis, the French line was later strengthened to include a wooden breastwork. By noon on July 6, the bulk of Abercrombies army had landed at the northern edge of Lake George. While Rogers men were detailed to take a set of heights near the landing beach, Howe began advancing up the west side of the La Chute with Gages light infantry and other units. As they pushed through the wood, they collided with TrÃ ©pezets retreating command. In the sharp firefight that ensued, the French were driven off, but Howe was killed. Abercrombies Plan With Howes death, British morale began to suffer and the campaign lost momentum. Having lost his energetic subordinate, Abercrombie took two days to advance on Fort Carillon, which normally would have been a two-hour march. Shifting to the portage road, the British established a camp near the sawmill. Determining his plan of action, Abercrombie received intelligence that Montcalm possessed 6,000 men around the fort and that the Chevalier de LÃ ©vis was approaching with 3,000 more. LÃ ©vis was approaching, but with only 400 men. His command joined Montcalm late on July 7. On July 7, Abercrombie dispatched engineer Lieutenant Matthew Clerk and an aide to scout the French position. They returned reporting that it was incomplete and could be easily carried without artillery support. Despite a suggestion from Clerk that guns should be emplaced atop and at the base of Rattlesnake Hill, Abercrombie, lacking imagination or an eye for terrain, set upon a frontal assault for the next day. That evening, he held a council of war, but only asked whether they should advance in ranks of three or four. To support the operation, 20 bateaux would float guns to the base of the hill. The Battle of Carillon Clerk again scouted the French lines on the morning of July 8 and reported that they could be taken by storm. Leaving the majority of the armys artillery at the landing site, Abercrombie ordered his infantry to form with eight regiments of regulars in the front supported by six regiments of provincials. This was completed around noon and Abercrombie intended to attack at 1:00 PM. Around 12:30, fighting began when New York troops began engaging the enemy. This led a ripple effect where individual units began fighting on their fronts. As a result, the British attack was piecemeal rather than coordinated. Fighting forward, the British were met by heavy fire from Montcalms men. Taking severe losses as they approached, the attackers were hampered by the abatis and cut down by the French. By 2:00 PM, the first assaults had failed. While Montcalm was actively leading his men, sources are unclear as to whether Abercrombie ever left the sawmill. Around 2:00 PM, a second attack went forward. About this time, the bateaux carrying guns to Rattlesnake Hill came under fire from the French left and the fort. Rather than push forward, they withdrew. As the second assault went in, it met with a similar fate. Fighting raged until around 5:00 PM, with the 42nd Regiment (Black Watch) reaching the base of the French wall before being repulsed. Realizing the scope of the defeat, Abercrombie ordered his men to fall back and a confused retreat ensued to the landing site. By the next morning, the British army was withdrawing south across Lake George. Aftermath In the assaults at Fort Carillon, the British lost 551 killed, 1,356 wounded, and 37 missing against French casualties of 106 killed and 266 wounded. The defeat was one of the bloodiest battles of the conflict in North America and marked the only major British loss of 1758 as both Louisbourg and Fort Duquesne were captured. The fort would be captured the British the following year when Lieutenant General Jeffrey Amhersts advancing army claimed it from the retreating French. Following its capture, it was renamed Fort Ticonderoga.
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Exercise the main focus Fitness today seems to be a pretty modern invention. Exercise sure goes back farther in time but we take fitness classes and participate in many different forms of exercise.Yet despite the plethora of health and fitness methods, programs, and resources, the general population has never been so physically sedentary and out-of-shape., the health and fitness industry as whole, no matter how Ã¢â¬Å"cutting-edgeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"revolutionaryÃ¢â¬ each new program claims to be, has failed to get the majority of people to value, practice, and enjoy physical exercise. Many parents are too worried about their children s academic achievement they are not paying attention to the physical side of health. The growth of medicine has grown intoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When the students exercise stress boredom and depression are minimized they can refocus on school after they receive some time for exercise. Teachers could also move around with the students to show that exercise is beneficial for everyone. It might not be the best approach but the physical education could boost the student s performance by making friendly competition to see what team finishes the relay first. Some schools strive to improve academic performance many haver cut down physical education to focus on academics. This point in our society school is the only focus we need kids to be not overwhelmed by school pressure to just relax with beneficial recess. A new report from the Institute of medicine shows how wrong this trend could be. Ã¢â¬Å"Found that exercise can improve cogn itive abilities as well as their lifestyle, students who exercise have lower bodyfat and better cardiovascular health.(New york times para1-2Ã¢â¬ ) There are three different types of exercise they are aerobic,flexibility and dynamic exercises. Some examples of aerobic exercise is running swimming hiking and many others. Dynamic exercises include running sprints and other drills for better coordination. To implement more focus on exercise in schools the parents and school boards first need to come together and collaborate on the serious problem of lack of exercise in
Thursday, December 19, 2019
1)Write a set of rules combining the secrecy controls of the BellLa Padula model with the integrity controls of the Biba model. Bell-LaPadula Model is a formal state- transition model of computer security policy that describes a set of access control rules for some objects. It s an access control model for protecting confidentiality. It has been proven that as the information flows from one object to another the system remains in a secure state. We can say that information prohibited in one state is also prohibited in all other reachable states. There are three properties in BLP model: 1) Discretionary Security Property. 2)Simple-Security Property-no read up. 3)Stac Property-no write down. If a secure system satisfies all theseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦2) In BLP, information flow can only occur directly through access operations. 3)Information flow is still possible. A low subject could create a high level Trojan Horse program that reads a high level document and copies its content to its low level file. This would constitute an improper declassification of the property. 4) Stac property: The very first version of BLP model did not consider * property. The ss and * are the mandatory BLP policies. LIMITATIONS OF BLP: Restricted to Confidentiality. No policies for changing access rights, a general and complete downgrade is secure, BLP is intended for systems with static security levels. this model contains communication channel which allows transfer of information in a manner that violates system security policy. Biba Model: It has similar structure to the BLP model, but id address the integrity rather than confidentiality. Objects and users are assigned integrity levels that from a partial order which is similar to BLP model. The integrity levels in Biba model are indicating the degrees of the accuracy for objects and users, rather than levels for determining confidentiality. Example: File stored on a machine in a closely monitored data center would be assigned a higher integrity level than a file stored on a laptop. The data-center computer is less likely to be compromised than a laptop. The access control rules for Biba are the reverse of those for BLP. Biba model will not allow reading