Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Things You Should Know About Best Persuasive Essay Samples

Things You Should Know About Best Persuasive Essay Samples The Best Persuasive Essay Samples Cover Up Persuasive essays share a whole lot of resemblance with argumentative essays. All persuasive essays are like argumentative essays. The most effective persuasive short essays often concentrate on controversial. They often focus on controversial issues. It's important to understand that essay topics are just basic ideas that leave you pondering an idea that might be a huge deal to another person. Argumentative research papers desire a bit of structure unlike the normal essays. Persuasive essays are an excellent approach to encourage the reader to check at a particular topic in a different light. Application essays about challenges reveal how you respond to difficulty to folks who are quite interested in how you are going to handle the subsequent four years all on your own. Persuasive writing is extremely typical in advertising where marketing professionals attempt to convince you to purchase something. All you have to do is consult with an expert customized essay writing service like ours that is guaranteed to submit all of your assigned work punctually. Our customer support will gladly tell you whether there are any special offers at the present time, along with make sure you are getting the very best service our business can deliver. Thus, it's the best choice to purchase from the stores immediately. Argumentative essays are also referred to as position papers due to their justification of the side of the issue they are written in support of. If you're already searching for persuasive essay examples online, you most likely have a somewhat vague idea about how to get started writing. If you decide on something which you like, you are going to be much more inclined to put forth a great effort, and that will make your persuasive essay much better in the end. The purpose of this kind of essay is to encourage readers to accept a specific viewpoint or act in a given way. There's, naturally, a limit on the variety of pages even our finest writers can produce with a pressing deadline, but generally, we figure out how to satisfy all the clients seeking urgent assistance. It is necessary for a writer to study each side of the issue to be able to determine how to beat counterarguments. As a consequence the matter is a really controversial one and has attracted a good deal of debate. A debatable topic indicates either side of the issue to notify the reader about the size of the issue. The cost of an essay depends upon the total amount of effort the writer has to exert. The evidence presented need to be specific, for instance, the author can use information from 1 state rather than working with the entire population. In an effort to persuade the audience, the author should take a position at the start of the essay. He will easily select relevant information or fact based on the outline. Make an essay will not have any difficulty. A persuasive essay has to be based on sound logic and has to contain factual proof to back up the argument. A fantastic persuasive essay presents either side of an argument. It needs to have two sides, meaning that it should be a topic that can be debated. Educated people ought to be asked to volunteer as literacy tutors. Students ought to be permitted to pray in school. Prospective parents ought to be asked to take parenting classes. The secret to a very good essay is having the ability to discover the ideal info and communica te that information effectively and logically. To begin with, you may use reasons backed by facts to talk in your favor. Such information presents connected ideas as a piece of the evidence utilizing good reasoning abilities. All your evidence needs to be reasonable and dependable. All About Best Persuasive Essay Samples Year round school isn't a good idea. You're able to get essays written for you now and don't need to be concerned about lifting a finger. Unlike topics for middle school or higher school, superior college topics are somewhat more challenging to discover. The school day ought to be shorter. An argumentative paper is part of the persuasion. If you can select the matter by yourself, it's possible to think of the issue of interest! For that reason, it's vital to learn how to approach any issue with a strong focus on solving it.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Implementing Nosql Databases On The Critical Line Of...

The following represent the key reasons for companies to implement NoSQL databases in their critical line of business applications. 5.1 Amazon Response times directly impact customer satisfaction and revenue thus are more important today with businesses having many competitors just a click away. NoSQL solutions like Apache Cassandra have the ability to write data faster and deliver compared to RDBMS. Amazon found that every 100ms decrease in site response time gave them 1% more in revenue. 5.2 Ooyala Scalability and performance go hand in hand, with companies needing to accommodate new users and data volumes in their line of business applications. Traditional architectures have failed to predict correctly. Ooyala choose Cassandra over†¦show more content†¦Netflix, which is one of largest cloud application in the world, uses Cassandra to make sure zero downtime for its customers, storing 95% of its data in Cassandra. 5.4 Adobe The term â€Å"location independence† means being able to read and write to a database regardless of where that input/output operation occurs and to have any write functionality propagating from that location, so that it is available to users and machines at other sites. Such functionality is very difficult to architect for relational databases. Cassandra allows both read and write capability with its peer-to-peer architecture and thus delivers true data location independence. Adobe appreciated this feature and used it in marketing cloud application. It runs it’s DataStax Enterprise/Cassandra database cluster between two data centres just to ensure that its customers can both read as well as write data fast no matter where they are located. 5.5 NASA Owing to a flexible data model, ability to accommodate structured, semi-structured and unstructured data of Cassandra, NASA has deployed it for some specific purposes. NASA uses it for security applications to track hardware and software patches and deals with data that is both structured and unstructured and allowed them to insert data much more smoothly than prior RDBMS, and achieved this with reduced query response. 6. Cost-Benefit Analysis To derive a cost-benefit analysis, we have compared benefits such as latency, operations/sec

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

History of Slave Trade - 1496 Words

During 1619 was the first time North America would see slaves (history.com). At the time it was unknown as to how long slaves would be kept in bondage and to labor the goods of the whites. Many slaves had been kidnapped, traded, and sold. The South was pro-slave and the reason black slaves would end up freed (Goldfield 2007). Abolitionism began during the early 1830’s when Christians realized that slavery was opposite of their belief and a sin (http://americanabolitionist.liberalarts.iupui.edu). This lead to the â€Å"Abolition Movement,† that would eventually help to free some of the slaves. Post Civil War slavery during the 17th through 19th centuries, in Southern United States, the growth of slavery, the system, free slavery, and abolitionism. Cotton production began before the early 1800’s but was at a small scale along with rice and tobacco (Goldfield 2007). It wasn’t until the early 1800’sthat cottons production would increase. Cotton became the sole source of income for the whites in the South. There was no other farming except cotton during this time. Since Cotton was the largest produced commodity it was easy to see how cotton became king. Cotton was a global leading resource using black slaves for their production. In the Lower South the soil was excellent for growing cotton. When it was realized just how well cotton grew they expanded the lands to grow cotton which meant there was a higher demand for more slaves. The maintenance of the cotton was going to requireShow MoreRelatedThe History Of The Slave Trade1779 Words   |  8 PagesThe history of the slave trade is one that most people would want to forget. Though, forgetting such an important era in the history of the world is not only wrong but a recipe for repeating other such mistakes. According to Capone (2007), more than 11 million Africans were taken to the New World in the period between the 16th and mid-19th centuries. More than any other colony in the Americas: Brazil received the largest portion of the slaves. The Brazilian coastline was especially a major hostingRead MoreAfrican Slave Trade in American History1725 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"African Slave Trade in American History† Slavery has taken place throughout the world since before ancient times, and the act of trading slaves was a common act throughout the world for centuries. Slavery previously existed in certain parts of Africa, Europe, Asia, and also in America before the beginning of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. What initially started out as an enormous search for trade in gold, spices, and etc., ended up turning into an callous human trading system of exporting AfricanRead MoreImpact Of Slave Trade On West Africa1055 Words   |  5 PagesIn addition to the impacts of the slave trade on the social history of Africa, there were also major impacts on the political history. Below, three major impacts of the slave trade on the political history of West Africa will be discussed. To begin with, an impact that the slave trade had on West Africa is that it made the area more susceptible to colonization by European powers. There were two main ways in which the slave trade made it easier for European powe rs to colonize; the ways are the lossRead MoreImpact Of Trans Atlantic Slave Trade On African Societies1314 Words   |  6 PagesAtlantic slave trade, providing humans in exchange for other goods. During that 300 years, some twelve million Africans were transported to the Americas. This mass, forced migration had many consequences for Africa, in many aspects of its history. In World History classes—both high school and college— these consequences for Africa are usually omitted, and a more Eurocentric view of the Atlantic slave trade dominates. Because of this, many are not aware of the impacts of the slave trade on AfricanRead MorePrimary Source Evaluation Essay1018 Words   |  5 PagesTitle of Primary Source: ACCOUNT OF THE SLAVE TRADE ON THE COAST OF AFRICA by ALEXANDER FALCONBRIDGE The book was published in 1788 -- substantially after the events described took place. The time gap did not seriously affect the main content of the material because the events he describes were very serious and unforgettable ones. He wrote the material at the time he had already been a member of the Anti- Slavery Society leaving room for a little suspicion of his tendency to exaggerate some descriptionsRead MoreTrans-Atlantic Slave Trade‚Äà ¹1359 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade† The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was one of the most horrific things to happen to any group of people closely relating to the Jewish Holocaust. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was actually often referred to as the â€Å"Holocaust of Enslavement† which was basically the incarceration and imprisonment of people not for committing criminal offenses but to be put to work for others. The â€Å"Areas that were involved in the European slave trade eventually prospered.† (Aca Demon) TheseRead MoreSlavery Through The Ages Of Humans812 Words   |  4 Pagesinnocent people in this world s past. Slavery is modeled after the domestication of animals (Digital History). During the Agricultural revolution, humans started to domesticate animals. This could have led the move to human domestication. Slavery was used in one of the earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia (Mark). In Hammurabi’s Code many of the laws had protocol that dealt with slaves and slave owners, showing that slavery was present in the civilization. Slavery has affected many civilizationsRead MoreImpact Of Slave Trade On West Africa1153 Words   |  5 PagesAtlantic Slave Trade, providing humans in exchange for other goods. During that 300 years, some twelve million Africans were transported to the Americas. This mass, forced migration had many consequences for Africa, in many aspects of its history. In World History classes—both high school and college— these consequences for Africa are usually omitted, and a more Eurocentric view of the Atlantic Slave Trade dominates. Because of this, many are not aware of the impacts of the slave trade on AfricanRead MoreHistory Of The United States Before The Civil War1600 Words   |  7 PagesShaquanna Patterson December 6, 2015 HIST 2303:03 An Unfree Exchange: 1600-1800 The history of the United States before the Civil War is not only a history of democracy, freedom, and constitutional rule, but also one of slavery. By the time colonial America started buying and selling captured Africans, black slavery had become an institution in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in South America and the Caribbean islands. The discovery of raw sugar and rum in the Caribbean created a lucrative opportunityRead MoreColonial American Slavery Essay examples1458 Words   |  6 Pagesearly America is an extremely complex, yet vitally important part of American History. There are hundreds of thousands of documents, debates, and historical studies available today. According to Ms. Goetz, the assistant professor of history at Rice University, who states, in The Southern Journal of History, that in addition to geographic and chronological diversity in the America’s, assessment of experiences of colonial slaves is extremely complex, â€Å"especially in the cont ext of three European colonial

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Voting Technology - Political Responsiveness

Question: Discuss about the Voting Technology, Political Responsiveness. Answer: Introduction: Technology is such a modern term in todays world that nobody is unaware of it rather everybody is getting dependant on it and now the dependency has become an obsession to the people. Because without technology, sustaining in this world is the toughest. Technology has resulted in voracious industrialisation which thereby has resulted in modernisation or sometimes perhaps it would be better if the term ultra-modernisation. Our daily life encompasses various sites of technology because we use smartphones, smartwatches, smart T.V., cars with GPS system and so on. These has made our life so easy that hardly we indulge ourselves into activities that is time consuming, a little laborious and patient. Starting from children to adults, everyone prefers to be indoors and shop online even they do play games in computers or in mobiles but they have no time to go outside to have a walk in the morning fresh air. All these have made the minds of the people crippled and confined. This is dangerous for they have somehow made their minds paralytic in nature, neither could they think broad nor could they tolerate someones broadness, they remain prisoned in their small world of rushes, depressions, anxiety and hopelessness. They have forgotten to be friendly, to make themselves happy and to be healthy. Children are losing their childhood instead they are given gifts of technology from a little age so that they remain busy with that, thus they have no idea what a library is or what a story book is but they have huge knowledge about mobile phones, gadgets, cars and so on. (Finkelman, 2015) Technology is meant to support humans life to create good for them and to the nature but it is resulting otherwise. Definitely it has done a lot of good things to flourish industrialisation and to comfort the mans life but it has adversely affected both the environment and its living beings for some has already become extinct, some are in the verge of getting extinct, some are endangered and those who are living without any special tag, they themselves know the world they are thriving in. (Fujiwara,2015) How technology has affected us cannot be illustrated in some words, so in this essay I am going to focus on a particular aspect over which the effects of rapid industrialisation and technology has caused an unfortunate situation. Health is such an aspect over which the technology has resulted in a wider extent of both positive and negative outcomes. According to WHO- HEALTH is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of any diseases or infirmity. But this is a little absurd as a person cannot be healthy in all of these aspects. There has to be some troubles or sorts of conflicts in his life and he has to live with that. Today there is no peace in our mind, we all are running for our career, jobs, study etc. even if there is no physical and social illness, there exists mental agony in todays generation. But there are many approaches of technology that had soothed out our hassles contained life.( Blais, 2015) Nowadays hospitals and well care centres are equipped with inventive technologies that are resulting in excellence and wellness of humans. For the treatments which were once regarded as incurable are now totally curable under modern medications and care. Now the nurses and doctors can monitor the patients tension free because all the physical records of them would be forecasted on the computers that are attached or connected with them (Finkelman, 2015) . All the systems in the reputed hospitals are now digitalised which has resulted in development of health world. Patients suffering from diabetes can now check their blood sugar with the help of instruments by sitting in home only. Previously sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure manually but with the grace of technology this system has also become digitalised. Those who have hearing problems can hear with the help of hearing aids which looks like a blue tooth device attached to the ears. Smartphones can now detect the c alorie count of a person and can also plan a diet chart for an individual as well as it keeps the record of an individual for a whole day so that the person can assess how much calorie he has burnt. Those who are suffering from mental sclerosis takes help from the assistive technologist to guide them with modern innovations that can make their life better in all aspects and will make them independent. Even now, heart transplant is also possible which perhaps was unimaginable a few years before also. With all these good, there exists bad too for too much dependency has made us inactive in nature. For we have got no headache to remember things as all works of the offices, schools are now done on computers but sitting for long in front of computers are resulting in cervical spondylosis, back and waist pain, migraine, eye problems even obesity as constant eye on computer reduces movement of arms, and glucose regulation is also hampered, too much use of mobile phones and its harmful radiation are snatching away the life spans of the individuals and resulting in various brain diseases even the Wi-Fi radiation reduces sperm counts and can cause breathing problems. (Hsiao et al 2015) Development of technology cannot be stopped nor can its effects come at full stops but it is on us how we can regulate the extent of technology. We will definitely use these but at the same time it is our responsibility to take care of ourselves so that we doesnt meet any ill fate suddenly. It is our duty to provide a beautiful and healthy environment to our future generation. If we dont remain in good condition how can we provide the same to our future generation? References Hsiao, C. J., King, J., Hing, E., Simon, A. E. (2015). The role of health information technology in care coordination in the United States.Medical care,53(2), 184-190. Finkelman, A. (2015).Leadership and management for nurses: Core competencies for quality care. Pearson. Blais, K. (2015).Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. Pearson. Wartella, E., Rideout, V., Montague, H., Beaudoin-Ryan, L., Lauricella, A. (2016). Teens, health and technology: A national survey.Media and Communication,4(3). Fujiwara, T. (2015). Voting technology, political responsiveness, and infant health: evidence from Brazil.Econometrica,83(2), 423-464. Adjerid, I., Acquisti, A., Telang, R., Padman, R., Adler-Milstein, J. (2015). The Impact of Privacy Regulation and Technology Incentives: The Case of Health Information Exchanges.Management Science,62(4), 1042-1063.

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Theory of Spontaneous Origin and Biogenesis Essay Example

Theory of Spontaneous Origin and Biogenesis Paper INTRODUCTION Robert. C. Gallagher once said: â€Å"Change is inevitable- except from a vending machine. † â€Å"Change† is the word the practically governs our world today. Everything is slowly and gradually changing, new technologies and opportunities boosting everywhere. But the underlying question which we all wishfully choose to ignore is â€Å"All the changes happening is for good only? † Ellen Glasgow once said: â€Å"All change is not growth, as all movement is not forward. † Such are the changes going on in the world which are definitely not for good. They are changes like floods, famines, earthquakes and many more natural disasters. Now it feels as though our Mother Earth is mocking at us and trying to teach us an important lesson as though how does it feel if we were tortured. If we were inflicted upon pain the same way we did to her. In all one thought does occur to all of us that is the world really ending? Are we going back to where it all started? But one more question is to be asked and it is WHERE did all this start? WHERE did earth come from? HOW did the life originate? HOW did we come to life? Some of the truth and myths of this â€Å"ORIGIN OF LIFE† Is further discussed in this project. Theory of spontaneous origin We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of Spontaneous Origin and Biogenesis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of Spontaneous Origin and Biogenesis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of Spontaneous Origin and Biogenesis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Introduction Charles Darwins theory of evolution on the origin of life proposes that some four billion years ago, inanimate chemicals developed completely by chance into highly complex, living, single-celled organisms. This process of life coming from non-life is called spontaneous generation. According to the theory, a single-celled organism eventually evolved into all the complex life forms on earth in a relentless struggle for resources. Every evolutionary theory of life’s origins is based on spontaneous generation. The evolutionary development of life on earth is commonly depicted as an evolutionary tree. If life did arise spontaneously and then evolve into increasingly complex life forms, then spontaneous generation represents the trunk of that evolutionary tree and the branches are the various species that evolved from these earlier forms. If the origin of life cannot be shown to be plausible by the interaction of matter, random chance, energy and time then the existen ce of an evolutionary tree is a dubious proposition at best. Without a trunk there can be no tree. Without spontaneous generation there can be no evolution. First Call The notion that life could arise from inanimate, non-living matter is not a recent idea. During the dark ages, people speculated that rats and flies arose spontaneously from garbage because they mysteriously appeared when garbage was left out. Others had noticed that when meat and broths were left exposed they became covered with maggots and microorganisms. These observations led some to believe that these life forms arose suddenly and spontaneously from non-living, inanimate matter. Louis Pasteur entered the debate in 1862 when he published the results of his experiments on the spontaneous generation of microorganisms in broths. Using glass flasks, Pasteur showed that previously boiled broths remained uncontaminated with microorganisms unless the neck of the flask was broken. Broken flasks quickly teemed with life as the broths became cloudy. He proved that microorganisms were transported through the air to the broth and not generated from the broth itself. The work of Pasteur seemingly ended the debate on the question of the sudden, spontaneous origin of life. By the end of the nineteenth century, the majority of scientists believed that spontaneous generation was not possible. Loyal Darwinists, however, insisted on spontaneous generation, recognizing that it was the foundation upon which evolutionary theory rests. Ernst Haeckel, one of the chief proponents of Darwinism, stated in 1876: If we do not accept the hypothesis of spontaneous generation, then at this one point in the history of evolution we must have recourse to the miracle of a supernatural creation. Reheated The spontaneous generation debate heated up again in 1924 when Russian biochemist, I. A. Oparin proposed that life had arisen from simpler molecules on the lifeless earth under much different atmospheric conditions than exist today. However, instead of life arising suddenly, as previous spontaneous generation theories proposed, Oparin believed that it occurred over a very long period of time. In 1929 English biologist J. B. S. Haldane published a paper in which he proposed that ultraviolet light, acting on a primitive atmosphere containing water, ammonia and methane produced oceans with the consistency of a hot dilute soup containing the building blocks of life. In the nineteenth century Ernst Haeckel argued that although spontaneous generation was not observable under the current conditions on earth, it did take place in the past under different chemical conditions. Oparin and Haldane made the first serious proposals regarding those conditions. In 1952 Harold Urey noted that most of the planets in our solar system, except earth, have an atmosphere which contains little or no free oxygen. Furthermore, Urey knew that the building blocks of life are quickly destroyed (oxidized) if they are exposed to an environment containing oxygen. Therefore, he concluded that spontaneous generation must have occurred on the early earth with an atmosphere consisting mainly of hydrogen, ammonia, methane and water vapor, but little or no molecular oxygen. Lightning, volcanic eruptions, sunlight, and deep oceanic volcanic vents are among the energy sources proposed to stimulate the necessary chemical reactions. It was presumed that the building blocks of life were made in the atmosphere and then gradually fell to earth eventually accumulating in the primeval ocean. Despite absolutely no geological evidence for the existence of this primeval soup the Oparin-Haldane-Urey theories became scientific dogma. These foundational assumptions have provided the framework for the modern theory of evolution for the last several decades. Another Atmosphere The atmospheric conditions proposed by Oparin, Haldane and Urey were radically different from what exists today. Because oxygen destroys the chemical building blocks of life, they speculated that the early earth had an oxygen-free atmosphere. However, in the last few decades, evidence has surfaced that has convinced most atmospheric scientists that the early atmosphere contained abundant oxygen. In the 1970’s Apollo 16 astronauts discovered that water is broken down into oxygen and hydrogen gas in the upper atmosphere when it is bombarded by ultraviolet radiation. This process, called photo dissociation, is an efficient process which would have resulted in the production of large quantities of oxygen in a relatively short time. Studies by the astronauts revealed that this process is probably a major source of oxygen in our current atmosphere. The assumption of an oxygen-free atmosphere has also been rejected on theoretical grounds. The ozone layer around planet earth consists of a thin but critical blanket of oxygen gas in the upper atmosphere. This layer of oxygen gas blocks deadly levels of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Without oxygen in the early atmosphere, there could have been no ozone layer over the early earth. Without an ozone layer, all life on the surface of planet earth would face certain death from exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation. Furthermore, the chemical building blocks of proteins, RNA and DNA, would be quickly annihilated because ultraviolet radiation destroys their chemical bonds. It doesn’t matter if these newly formed building blocks are in the atmosphere, on dry ground, or under water. So evolutionists have a major dilemma. The chemical building blocks of life would be destroyed if oxygen was present, and they would be destroyed if it wasn’t! This catch 22 has been noted by evolutionist and molecular biologist Michael Denton: What we have then is a sort of ‘Catch 22’ situation. If we have oxygen we have no organic compounds, but if we don’t we have none either. Even if the building blocks of life could survive the effects of intense ultraviolet radiation and form life spontaneously, the survival of any subsequent life forms would be impossible in the presence of such heavy ultraviolet light. Ozone must be present to protect any surface life from the deadly effects of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Finally, the assumption that there was no oxygen in the early atmosphere is not borne out by the geologic evidence. Geologists have discovered evidence of abundant oxygen content in the oldest known rocks on earth. Again, Michael Denton: Ominously, for believers in the traditional organic soup scenario, there is no clear geochemical evidence to exclude the possibility that oxygen was present in the Earth’s atmosphere soon after the formation of its crust. All of this evidence supports the fact that there was abundant oxygen on the early earth. However, with or without oxygen, evolution is in a no-win situation. Spontaneous generation could not have occurred either with oxygen—or without it! Another Ocean During the last two decades, the notion of a primordial soup has not fared too well either. Studies of the atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation, and the dilutional effect of a large body of water, have convinced many scientists that the ocean could not have developed into the hot dilute soup that was envisioned by Darwin, Oparin, and Haldane. Oparin envisioned the production of cellular building blocks in the atmosphere as a result of lightning. Once produced, these chemicals would theoretically build up in the primordial oceans and combine to form the first living systems. However, it has been estimated that it would take up to two years for amino acids to fall from the atmosphere into the ocean. This is a huge problem because even small amounts of ultraviolet radiation would destroy the building blocks before they reached the oceans. Furthermore, as we saw earlier, lack of ozone would further expedite this destruction. A problem seldom noted by textbooks is that the chemical reactions that create the building blocks of life are reversible. That is, the same energy sources that cause the formation of the building blocks of life will also destroy those same building blocks unless they are removed from the environment where they were created. In fact, the building blocks of life are destroyed even more efficiently than they are created. These problems have convinced researchers that the idea of a primordial soup is quite unlikely. Michael Denton comments on the lack of evidence for the primordial soup: Rocks of great antiquity have been examined over the past two decades and in none of them has any trace of abiotically produced organic compounds been found†¦Considering the way the pre-biotic soup is referred to in so many discussions of the origin of life as an already established reality, it comes as something of a shock to realize that there is absolutely no positive evidence for its existence. Equilibrium There is one other hurdle that must be successfully cleared if the evolutionist’s scenario on the origin of life is to have credibility. This is the problem of chemical equilibrium. In any broth or solution, there is the tendency for the materials to become evenly distributed with time. This tendency is called the development of equilibrium. For example, if a drop of red dye is put into a container of water the dye particles gradually disperse throughout the solution until the entire solution turns a dilute red color. The larger the volume of the solvent (i. e. , the water in the dye example), the more dilute will be the solution once the dye particles have become evenly distributed. This dilutional effect is irreversibly tied to time. As time advances, the dye particles become evenly distributed until the solution reaches a state of chemical equilibrium. Again the chemical reactions leading to the formation of DNA and proteins are reversible. This means that the building blocks of DNA and proteins are broken off of the chain just as easily as they are added. Consequently, the building blocks of life, if they survived the effects of oxygen and UV radiation, would constantly be combining and coming apart in the primordial soup. This combining and coming apart of chemical building blocks proceeds until a state of equilibrium is reached. In the case of amino acids and nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and proteins will be predominantly unbounded when the solution is at equilibrium. Since the natural tendency for the building blocks of life is to disperse and remain un-bonded, the question evolutionists must answer is how did the building blocks of life become bonded and stay bonded in a primordial soup which is steadily progressing towards equilibrium? When confronted with the problem of equilibrium, most evolutionists will appeal to the magic ingredient of time. Nobel Laureate George Wald attempted to explain: Time is in fact the hero of the plot. Given so much time the impossible becomes possible, the possible probable, and the probable virtually certain. One has only to wait: Time itself performs the miracles. However, Dr. Blum, who is an evolutionist himself, points out that Wald’s faith in the miraculous ingredient of time is mere wishful thinking. Prolonged time periods, he asserts, actually worsen the dilemma: I think if I were rewriting this chapter [on the origin of life] completely, I should want to change the emphasis somewhat. I should want to play down still more the importance of the great amount of time available for highly improbable events to occur. One may take the view that the greater the time elapsed the greater should be the approach to equilibrium, the most probable state, and it seems that this ought to take precedence in our thinking over the idea that time provides the possibility for the occurrence of the highly improbable. According to Dr. Blum, the magic bullet of time does not increase the likelihood that chains of DNA or proteins will form by chance chemistry. In fact, increasing the time factor actually ensures that any primordial soup would consist of predominantly unbonded amino acids and nucleotides! The Odds During the last several decades a number of prestigious scientists have attempted to calculate the mathematical probability of the random-chance origin of life. The results of their calculations reveal the enormity of the dilemma faced by evolutionists. Dr. Blum estimated the probability of just a single protein arising spontaneously from a primordial soup. Equilibrium and the reversibility of biochemical reactions eventually led Blum to state: The spontaneous formation of a polypeptide of the size of the smallest known proteins seems beyond all probability. This calculation alone presents serious objection to the idea that all living matter and systems are descended from a single protein molecule which was formed as a ‘chance’ act. In the 1970’s British astronomer Sir Frederick Hoyle set out to calculate the mathematical probability of the spontaneous origin of life from a primordial soup environment. Applying the laws of chemistry, mathematical probability and thermodynamics, he calculated the odds of the spontaneous generation of the simplest known free-living life form on earth – a bacterium. Hoyle and his associates knew that the smallest conceivable free-living life form needed at least 2,000 independent functional proteins in order to accomplish cellular metabolism and reproduction. Starting with the hypothetical primordial soup he calculated the probability of the spontaneous generation of just the proteins of a single amoebae. He determined that the probability of such an event is one chance in ten to the 40 thousandth power, i. . , 1 in 1040,000. Prior to this project, Hoyle was a believer in the spontaneous generation of life. This project, however, changed his opinion 180 degrees. Hoyle stated: The likelihood of the formation of life from inanimate matter is one to a number with 40 thousand naughts [zeros] after it. It is enough to bury Darwin and the whole theor y of evolution. There was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor on any other, and if the beginnings of life were not random they must therefore have been the product of purposeful intelligence. Hoyle also concluded hat the probability of the spontaneous generation of a single bacteria, is about the same as the probability that a tornado sweeping through a junk yard could assemble a 747 from the contents therein. Hoyle’s calculations may seem impressive, but they don’t even begin to approximate the difficulty of the task. He only calculated the probability of the spontaneous generation of the proteins in the cell. He did not calculate the chance formation of the DNA, RNA, nor the cell wall that holds the contents of the cell together. Example 1 Consider this. The odds of winning a state lottery are about 1 chance in ten million. The odds of someone winning the state lottery every single week from age 18 to age 99 is 1 chance in 4. 6 x 1029,120. Therefore, the odds of winning the state lottery every week consecutively for eighty years is more likely than the spontaneous generation of just the proteins of an amoebae! A more detailed estimate for spontaneous generation has been made by Harold Morowitz, a Yale University physicist. Morowitz imagined a broth of living bacteria that was super-heated so that all the complex chemicals were broken down into their basic building blocks. After cooling the mixture, he concluded that the odds of a single bacterium re-assembling by chance is one in 10100,000,000,000. This number is so large that it would require several thousand books just to write it out. To put this number into perspective, it is more likely that an entire extended family would win the state lottery every week for a million years than for a bacterium to form by chance! Example 2 In his book, Origins–A Skeptics Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth, Robert Shapiro gives a very realistic illustration of how one might estimate the odds of the spontaneous generation of life. Shapiro begins by allowing one billion years (5 x 1014 minutes) for spontaneous biogenesis. Next he notes that a simple bacterium can make a copy of itself in twenty minutes, but he assumes that the first life was much simpler. So he allows each trial assembly to last one minute, thus providing 5 x 1014 trial assemblies in 1 billion years to make a living bacterium. Next he allows the entire ocean to be used as the reaction chamber. If the entire ocean volume on planet earth were divided into reaction flasks the size of a bacterium we would have 1036 separate reaction flasks. He allows each reaction flask to be filled with all the necessary building blocks of life. Finally, each reaction chamber is allowed to proceed through one-minute trial assemblies for one billion years. The result is that there would be 1051 tries available in 1 billion years. According to Morowitz we need 10100,000,000,000 trial assemblies! Regarding the probabilities calculated by Morowitz, Robert Shapiro wrote: The improbability involved in generating even one bacterium is so large that it reduces all considerations of time and space to nothingness. Given such odds, the time until the black holes evaporate and the space to the ends of the universe would make no difference at all. If we were to wait, we would truly be waiting for a miracle. Regarding the origin of life, Francis Crick, winner of the Nobel Prize in biology, stated: An honest man, armed with all the knowledge available to us now, could only state that in some sense, the origin of life appears at the moment to be almost a miracle, so many are the conditions which would have had to have been satisfied to get it going. Regarding the probability of spontaneous generation, Harvard University biochemist and Nobel Laureate, George Wald stated: One has to only contemplate the magnitude of this task to concede that the spontaneous generation of a living organism is impossible. Yet we are here–as a result, I believe, of spontaneous generation. In this incredibly twisted statement, we see that Wald’s dogmatic adherence to the evolutionist’s paradigm is independent of the evidence. Wald’s belief in the impossible can only be explained by faith: †¦the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. Despite these incredible odds and insurmountable problems, spontaneous generation is taught as a fact from grammar school to the university level. In fact, NASA reported to the press in 1991 their opinion that life arose spontaneously not once, but multiple times, because previous attempts were wiped out by cosmic catastrophes! Conclusion The overwhelming evidence is clear†¦spontaneous generation is an impossibility. It is a scientifically corrupt theory that, among other things, violates the Law of Biogenesis, which says that that life never arises except from life. Life simply cannot come from non-life. Since spontaneous generation is impossible, so then the foundation that evolution rests on has been shattered. Without spontaneous generation there can be no evolution. Despite scientific evidence to the contrary, however, there are those who continue to believe in evolution, and are therefore forced to accept and defend some form of spontaneous generation. The reason for this dogmatic adherence to spontaneous generation is eloquently pointed out by George Wald: When it comes to the origin of life there are only two possibilities: Creation or spontaneous generation. There is no third way. Spontaneous generation was disproved one hundred years ago, but that leads us to only one other conclusion, that of supernatural creation. We cannot accept that on philosophical grounds; therefore, we choose to believe the impossible: That life arose spontaneously by chance! According to Wald, it’s not about discovering the truth through the finding of fact, it’s not a matter of evidence, not a matter of science†¦it’s a matter of philosophy! Like George Wald, many people do not like the alternative: that all life on earth was created by God. So, as Wald said, they are willing to believe the impossible. Since the impossibility of spontaneous generation is a conclusion that leads to a supernatural creative act by God, it is a conclusion that many choose not to accept. It carries with it what are felt to be, in the present politically correct climate, undesirable philosophic and religious implications. It is for that unfortunate and illogical reason most scien tists continue to cling to the unscientific, disproved theory that life arose from non-life through spontaneous generation. Biogenesis is the law that living things come only from other living things, e. g. spider lays eggs, which develop into spiders. It may also refer to biochemical processes of production in living organisms. The biogenesis theory claims that all living things arise from living things. This theory of biogenesis is completely opposite from the spontaneous generation theory. In this article, we shall learn a bit about what is biogenesis theory. But before we go into the details of theory of biogenesis, let us understand the spontaneous theory of generation. Spontaneous Theory of Generation Long before 1900s, people believed that organisms could evolve from non living things. One of the early thinkers who believed that non-living things could spontaneously give rise to living things was Aristotle. For example, it was a common belief that logs gave rise to crocodiles, dirty sewers gave rise to rats, maggots came from dead bodies, wet soil lead to creation of toads, etc. This spontaneous theory of generation had a strong belief system among people over many centuries. What is Biogenesis Theory? An amateur microbiologist, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, observed small organisms in dirty water and some material he scrapped from his teeth. These organisms were called animalcules that we call as protozoans, today. This discovery took Europe by storm and scientists were thrilled to find these animalcules. The most pricking question in the minds of many was about the origin of these animalcules. This doubt had only one answer, spontaneous theory of generation. Over the years, many intelligent minds came up with theories that defied spontaneous generation theory. An Italian physician, Francesco Redi could prove in 1668 that life cannot evolve spontaneously. However, people who supported biogenesis did not think that Redis theory was applicable to microbes. Many other scientists continued their attempts to dissolve the pontaneous theory of generation. However, John Needham in 1745, added chicken broth to a flask and allowed it to cool. Then after few days, microbes did grow in the broth, and Needham proposed it a proof of spontaneous theory of generation. Needlam claimed that vital life is needed for spontaneous generation of animalcules. His claim was challenged by Lazzaro Spallanzani in 1768, wh o repeated the experiment in a sealed container. He found there was no growth in the container. Then, in 1858, Rudolf Virchow, a scientist challenged the spontaneous generation theory by proposing the theory of biogenesis. He stated, living cells can arise only from pre-existing living cells. This biogenesis theory partly explained the presence of animalcule under the microscope. However, without any concrete scientific evidence, Virchows biogenesis theory was not accepted by all. Louis Pasteur and Theory of Biogenesis Louis Pasteur was one of the most intelligent scientist of his time. He was the first to be able to prove the biogenesis theory. He proposed that the organisms that are not visible to the naked eye are present in air. However, he emphasized on the fact that air did not give rise to living things. He carried out an experiment that would dissolve the spontaneous theory of generation and prove the theory of biogenesis. In his experiment, Pasteur heated a number of short necked flasks that contained beef broth. After heating the flasks, he immediately sealed the mouths of some flasks and left a few unsealed. Then after a few days, microorganisms were observed in beef broth that was in flasks that were unsealed. The sealed flasks had no microorganisms present in the broth. This proved that the microorganisms were present in the air and could contaminate the beef broth without the seal. Now, to prove that air did not give rise to organisms, he demonstrated another experiment. He filled long-necked flasks with beef broth and the flasks were bent into S-shaped curves. These flasks were heated to kill any presence of life in the beef broth. Then he left the flasks as they were for a few days without sealing them. This way the air could reach the broth as it was not blocked. After a few days, Pasteur observed the beef broth and found no microorganisms in it. This showed that the air can access the broth, but the organisms are trapped in the S-shaped neck of the flask and thus are not able to reach it. You can read more on some interesting creation theories and learn about the human evolution. This simple and ingenious experiment was enough to break an age-old theory of spontaneous generation. The world could now understand the relevancy of biogenesis theory and that only a living thing can give rise to a living thing. Thus, the mystical belief of non living things giving rise to living things was shattered by a simple experiment by Louis Pasteur. In the end, the answer to the question what is biogenesis theory is that all living things will be created only from living things and no other process.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

How to Ace Your Econometrics Test

How to Ace Your Econometrics Test Econometrics is the most difficult course for economics majors. These tips should help you triumph over your econometrics test. If you can ace Econometrics, you can pass any Economics course. Difficulty: Easy Time Required: As Little Time As Possible Heres How Find out the material covered on the test! Econometrics tests tend to be either mainly theory or mainly computational. Each one should be studied differently.Find out if youll be allowed to have a formula sheet for the exam. Will one be provided for you, or will you be able to bring your own cheat sheet of econometric and statistical formulas?DO NOT wait until the night before to create an econometrics cheat sheet. Create it as youre studying, and use it when youre solving practice problems, so youll be very familiar with your sheet.Have a legible and organized econometrics cheat sheet. On a stressful test, you dont want to be searching for a term or trying to decipher the writing. This is critical for tests with time limits.Make songs to help you remember definitions. Its silly, but it works! [sings] Correlation is covariance over the product of their deviations. I make little drum beats with my thumb (seriously).MOST IMPORTANT: If assigned practice problems, DO THEM! Most econometr ics test questions are quite similar to suggested questions. Students score at least 20% better by doing them in my experience. Try to get old econometrics exams from exam banks, libraries, or former students. These are particularly useful if the same economics professor has taught the course for many years.Talk to former students of the course. Theyll know the examination style of the professor and may be able to provide useful tips. Find out if his tests are from the book or from the lectures.Try to make your study environment as similar as possible to the econometrics test situation. If you drink coffee while studying see if you can have a coffee in the exam room or have some right before.If your test is in the morning, study in the morning if possible. Being comfortable with a situation will prevent you from panicking and forgetting what youve learned.Try to figure out what questions the professor could ask, then answer them. Youd be surprised how often your guesses are correct. There are only so many different econometrics questions.DO NOT pull an all nighter and cheat yourself out of sleep. The extra ho urs of sleep will help you more than a couple hours of cramming. You need all your strength to slay the econometrics demon! Dont study the hour before the test. It never works and it will just get you nervous. Do what you can to stay relaxed. I find playing a video game helps me, but find something that works for you.When you get the test, read all the questions first, and answer the one you think is easiest immediately. That will put you in a positive frame of mind for the other questions.Dont spend too much time on one question. Feel free to skip a part of a question and go on to something else. Ive seen too many good students unnecessarily run out of time. Tips Sometimes it will seem impossible to find a piece of information you need, but you can do it if youre a little creative. If you need to get the standard error, you can do it if you know the t-stat.Wear layered clothing because you never know how hot or cold the room will be. I usually wear a sweater with a t-shirt under it, so I can take the sweater off if the room is warm.Dont program formulas into your calculator if youre not allowed to. We often notice and its not worth getting kicked out of school for. Cheat is common in econometrics, so profs watch for it.The time you spend on a question should be proportional to the percentage of marks it is worth. Dont spend a lot of time on small questions!Dont get too upset with yourself if you dont do well. Sometimes it just isnt your day. Hall of Fame pitcher Nolan Ryan lost 294 games, so dont worry if you lose a test on occasion. What You Need pencileraserpenscalculator (if allowed)cheat sheet (if allowed)a confident attitude

Monday, February 24, 2020

Family Genetic History Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Family Genetic History - Assignment Example Type your answers on this form. Click â€Å"Save as† and save the file with the assignment name and your last name, e.g., â€Å"NR305_Family_Genetic_History_Form_Smith†.When you are finished, submit the form to the Family Genetic History Dropbox by the deadline indicated in your guidelines. Post questions in the Q&A Forum or contact your instructor if you have questions about this assignment. Develop a family genetic history that includes, at a minimum, three generations of your chosen adult’s family, including grandparents, parents, and the adult’s generation. If the adult has any children, include them as the fourth generation. **PLEASE NOTE: This assignment is to reveal the potential impact of the family’s health on the adult participant. You do not need to identify anyone who is not biologically related to the adult except for a spouse or significant other. You do not need to use symbols, but instead write brief descriptions for each person. Each description should include the following information: first name, birthdate, death date, occupation, education, primary language, and a health summary, including any medical diagnoses. An example is below: This example points to common problems among this generation on both sides of the family. Consider the implications this would have for the adult participant’s health if these were that person’s family members. Complete the family genetic history form below. Indicate if any information is N/A (not applicable) or unknown. Indicate any information the person did not want to disclose by noting â€Å"Does not want to disclose.† Evaluate the impact of the family’s genetic history on your adult participant’s health. For example, if the adult participant’s mother and both sisters have diabetes, hypertension, or cancer, what might that mean for the adult participant’s future health? From the information obtained from the adult person interviewed it was found that his paternal